Assessment. 2023 Sep 14:10731911231194996. doi: 10.1177/10731911231194996. Online ahead of print.
Researchers and clinicians working within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition, Text Rev (DSM-5-TR) framework face a difficult question: what does it mean to have an evidence-based assessment of a nonevidence-based diagnostic construct? Alternative nosological approaches conceptualize psychopathology as (a) hierarchical, allowing researchers to move between levels of description and (b) dimensional, eliminating artificial dichotomies between disorders and the dichotomy between mental illness and mental well-being. In this article, we provide an overview of ongoing efforts to develop validated measures of transdiagnostic nosologies (i.e., the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology; HiTOP) with applications for measurement-based care. However, descriptive models like HiTOP, which summarize patterns of covariation among psychopathology symptoms, do not address dynamic processes underlying the problems associated with psychopathology. Ambulatory assessment, well-suited to examine such dynamic processes, has also developed rapidly in recent decades. Thus, the goal of the current article is twofold. First, we provide a brief overview of developments in constructing valid measures of the HiTOP model as well as developments in ambulatory assessment practices. Second, we outline how these parallel developments can be integrated to advance measurement-based treatment. We end with a discussion of some major challenges for future research to address to integrate advances more fully in transdiagnostic and ambulatory assessment practices.