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Evaluating kidney function and the associated risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study at a tertiary hospital in Jordan

BMJ Open. 2023 Oct 12;13(10):e073536. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-073536.


BACKGROUND: The diabetes prevalence is escalating in Jordan; as a consequence, the risk of developing diabetic kidney diseases is also increasing.

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of risk factors and comorbidities on kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

DESIGN: A cross-sectional, survey-based study.

SETTING: Participants were recruited from the endocrinology and cardiology clinics of a tertiary hospital in Jordan.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with T2DM aged 18 years and more who had undergone a kidney function test within a year before data collection.

OUTCOME MEASURES: The estimated GFR (eGFR) mean values and proteinuria presence were used to evaluate the impact of risk factors on kidney function. Descriptive and analytical statistical approaches were used to calculate mean, prevalence and correlations. The SPSS software was used with a p value<0.05 for significance.

RESULTS: Of the total 331 study participants, 54.1% were men and 45.9% were women. The mean age was 60 years. The eGFR mean values were significantly reduced in patients with T2DM with hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and proteinuria (p<0.01). The correlation analysis results showed that the eGFR was positively correlated with hypertension and hyperlipidaemia presence (rs=0.253, 0.220), and negatively correlated with age, body mass index and diabetes duration (rs=-0.395, -0.151, -0.221), respectively. However, the eGFR did not corelate with income, sex, smoking and anaemia. Of note, about 68% of the patients with T2DM had uncontrolled diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS: Kidney function were severely affected in patients with T2DM in the presence of risk factors and comorbidities. It is highly recommended to control diabetes through medications and life style, and to regularly check for kidney function to halt the deteriorations in kidney function.

PMID:37827749 | DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2023-073536

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