Environ Monit Assess. 2023 Oct 13;195(11):1314. doi: 10.1007/s10661-023-11912-4.
Underwater soundscape that spans a broad frequency band shows variability consistent with contributing noise sources and ocean environment. However, increased anthropogenic activities result in noise proliferation which can harm natural marine habitat. Continuous monitoring of background sound is useful to assess such spatio-temporal variability of soundscape. Standard noise level metrics, for instance, mean (μ), 90th percentiles (90P), standard deviation (σ), and kurtosis (β), are constructed from noise field measured from three coastal stations in Eastern Arabian Sea. These metrics are found to be suitable to describe the soundscape variability with respect to season, frequency, and depth. Mean and 90P are used to compare the seasonal variations while kurtosis metrics are exercised to check the impulsive nature of composite signal. Histogram representation and probability density function (PDF) were utilized to analyze the spectral variation in soundscape with respect to season. Analysis was carried out at 500-ms temporal window in two spectral bands corresponding to traffic and wind noise fields. Seasonal analysis shows that in summer, mean noise level decreases as hydrophone depth increases, while in winter, deeper depths have higher mean value with the presence of seasonal surface duct. This implication of sound speed profile on noise field has also been confirmed using appropriate noise model.