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Impact of domestic and industrial effluent on marine environment at Karachi Port Trust (KPT) coastal area, Pakistan

Environ Monit Assess. 2023 Oct 13;195(11):1308. doi: 10.1007/s10661-023-11875-6.


The extent of aquatic pollution of Karachi Port Trust (KPT) coastal area located at the south of Pakistan coast has increased considerably in the last few decades due to unrestricted discharge of sanitary waste. The current study lays emphasis on the identification of vulnerable zones severely impacted by pollution in the KPT coastal area using laboratory monitoring, geospatial techniques, and statistical analysis. During 2019, sampling was conducted along the KPT coastal area, and 54 samples of seawater were collected during pre- and post-monsoon seasons. The outcomes of physical and chemical analysis revealed that the concentrations of BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), COD (chemical oxygen demand), nitrate, phosphate, phenol, cyanide, and oil and grease frequently exceeded the permitted limit of international norms and reached much greater levels. The levels of perilous metals in the seawater samples were in the order Ni>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd>As in both phases and also reached to elevated levels as a consequence of the indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater. Based on detailed examination during pre- and post-monsoon, six sites near KPT, Lyari River outfall, and Karachi Harbour were identified as highly polluted zones due to heavy discharge of sanitary effluents at these sites. In particular, the industrial zones present in the formal and informal sectors of Karachi are responsible for the deterioration of the KPT coastal area. Therefore, it is advised to design and build a submerged drainage system to transport and distribute massive amounts of treated municipal and industrial waste to the deep open sea in order to minimize the high pollutant levels in these locations.

PMID:37831294 | DOI:10.1007/s10661-023-11875-6

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