Clin Lab. 2023 Oct 1;69(10). doi: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2023.230517.
BACKGROUND: The study investigates the prognostic impact of D-dimer levels in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). Although D-dimer levels were found to be associated with prognosis in various clinical settings such as heart failure or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the prognostic role of D-dimer levels in CS patients has not yet been clarified.
METHODS: Consecutive CS patients with and without concomitant AMI were prospectively included from 2019 to 2021. The prognostic impact of D-dimer levels was tested for 30-day all-cause mortality within the entire study cohort and stratified by the presence or absence of AMI. Statistical analyses included C-statistics, Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate Cox regression analyses.
RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-three consecutive CS patients were included with an overall all-cause mortality at 30 days of 55%. The median D-dimer level on admission was 8.44 mg/L, whereas D-dimer levels were higher in 30-day non-survivors compared to survivors (median 13.0 vs. 5.2 mg/L; p = 0.011). D-dimer levels above the median were associated with an increased risk of 30-day all-cause mortality compared to patients with lower D-dimer levels (66% vs. 54%, log rank p = 0.050; HR = 1.594; 95% CI 0.979 – 2.594; p = 0.061), especially in patients with non-AMI-related CS (65% vs. 30%, log rank p = 0.010). The prognostic value of D-dimer levels was still demonstrated after multivariate adjustment (HR = 1.024; 95% CI 1.004 – 1.045; p = 0.020).
CONCLUSIONS: D-dimer measurement may be a reliable biomarker to predict the risk of 30-day mortality in CS patients, especially in patients with non-AMI related CS.