Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2023 Oct 20:103855. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2023.103855. Online ahead of print.
AIM: To evaluate serum vitamin D levels in sub-types of retinal vascular occlusions and compare the levels in ischemic and non-ischemic presentations.
METHODS: This study included 50 patients of retinal vascular occlusions comprising central retinal vein occlusion, branch retinal vein occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, branch retinal artery occlusion (study group) diagnosed on basis of clinical characteristics as well as investigations and an age and gender-matched healthy control group (control group). The study group was further classified into ischemic and non-ischemic subtypes and serum vitamin D levels were analysed and compared.
RESULTS: There were 50 patients of various sub-types of retinal vascular occlusions comprising 13 cases of CRVO, 30 cases of BRVO, 05 cases of CRAO, 02 cases of BRAO and 50 age and sex-matched controls. Mean BCVA and CMT in RVO patients was +1.12 log MAR, 346.72± 27.93µm while in control group was +0.37 log MAR, 236.22 ±3.71 µm which were statistically significant (p=0.004; p=0.002). The mean serum vitamin D value in study group was 18.39 ng/dl as compared to 32.31ng/dl in control group which was statistically significant (p=0.001). The difference in the baseline vitamin D value between the ischemic and non -ischemic sub groups among total vascular occlusion was found to be statistically significant (p= 0.010). However, baseline vitamin D levels difference among ischemic and non-ischemic cases in individual sub-types of vascular occlusion was statistically insignificant.
CONCLUSION: High prevalence of low serum vitamin D levels is seen in patients of retinal vascular occlusion spectrum diseases. Moreover, ischemic types of retinal vascular occlusion have significantly lower serum vitamin D levels as compared to non – ischemic despite having fewer no of patients in arterial occlusion sub-types. Therefore, vitamin D supplements may be considered as possible future targeted therapy in optimizing the severity of disease.