BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2023 Oct 23;15(1):140. doi: 10.1186/s13102-023-00751-y.
BACKGROUND: There is little scientific literature available on the diversity of physiological responses of judokas to anaerobic interval exercises in warm environments. Understanding the dynamics of changes in the concentration of selected hormones during a special endurance test at different ambient temperatures may have significant practical value, as it provides an opportunity for optimal programming and monitoring of the training process. So, the main aim of the research was to survey interval anaerobic exercises in different ambient temperatures on Concentration levels of selected hormones in judokas.
METHODS: 15 judokas athletes (age: 20.65 ± 2.03 years; body height: 178.00 ± 6.31 cm; body mass: 76.26 ± 12.57 kg; training experience: 12.1 ± 1.57 years) volunteered for the study. The judokas performed five sequences (each lasting 7.20 min) of pulsatile exercises on a cycle ergometer and hand ergometer in a thermoclimatic chamber at temperatures of 21 ± 0.5 °C and 31 ± 0.5 °C. The exercises were different from typical interval exercises, with varying times, upper and lower limb loads, and were followed by a 15-minute break after each sequence. Total duration of the experiment, including the five sequences of pulsating exercise and four 15-minute rest breaks between each exercise sequence, amounted to 96 min and 20 s. The workload was increased by 20 W for the lower limb tests and 12 W for the upper limb tests every 2 min. Biochemical measurements of testosterone (T), cortisol (C), growth hormone (HGH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), adrenaline (E), noradrenaline (NE), and β-endorphin (β-end)were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method on blood samples taken before and after five series of pulsatile exercises, at 1, 24, and 48 h.
RESULTS: Pulsatile exercise at ambient temperatures of 21 and 31 °C resulted in a decrease in body weight of the studied athletes (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced body volume and plasma volume after training (p < 0.05). The concentration of HGH, testosterone, cortisol and NE showed a statistically significant difference after the end of the series of pulsating exercises at both temperatures (p < 0.05) and did not significantly affect the concentration of ACTH, FSH and adrenaline concentration.
CONCLUSIONS: An increase in the concentration of growth hormone, cortisol and NE was observed after doing the work at both 21 and 31 °C ambient temperature. Physical exertion in both ambient temperatures contributed to a statistically significant decrease in testosterone concentration. Based on the obtained research results, it can be concluded that physical activity in various thermal conditions of the external environment activates the hormonal response to varying degrees, with the direction of changes depending on the external thermal factor.