J Agric Food Chem. 2023 Nov 2. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.3c03770. Online ahead of print.
Walnuts are grown in various countries, and as product origin information is becoming more important to consumers, new techniques to differentiate walnut geographical authenticity are needed. We conducted bulk stable isotope analysis (BSIA) and compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) on walnuts grown in seven countries. The BSIA consisted of δ13Cbulk, δ15Nbulk, and δ34Sbulk, and CSIA covered δ2Hfatty acid, δ13Cfatty acid, δ13Camino acid, δ15Namino acid, and δ2Hamino acid. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used for statistical analysis to compare samples from the USA and China. Parameters that yielded significant variations are δ2HC18:1n-9, δ13CC18:2n-6, δ13CC18:3n-3, δ13CGly, δ13CLeu, δ13CVal, δ2HGlu, δ2HIle, δ2HLeu, and δ2HThr. Our findings suggested that CSIA of fatty acids and amino acids can be useful to differentiate the geographical provenance of walnuts.